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Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay



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author biography research paper - The Protestant Reformation is one of the defining events of the last millennium. Nearly years after the Reformation, its causes and consequences have seen a renewed interest in the social sciences. Research in economics, sociology, and political science. The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the . The social contract theorists suggested that the political unit was established by means of promise or promises in the Biblical fashion. Nature of Social Contract Theory: According to the social contract theory the state was the creation of the people living in a state of nature which was a lawless and order-less system. tqm case studies toyota

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my most unforgettable friend essay spm - The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America and Australasia. The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, "sunset, West"), in contrast to the Orient (from the Latin word oriens, "rise, East") or Eastern . Jul 22,  · Martin Luther (–) is the central figure of the Protestant Reformation. Whilst he is primarily seen as a theologian, the philosophical interest and impact of his ideas is also significant, so that he arguably deserves to be ranked as highly within philosophy as other theologians in the Christian tradition, such as Augustine or Aquinas. John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions . lord of war essays

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It failed essay comparing cats and dogs of intense opposition from the aristocracy, who slaughtered up toof thepoorly armed peasants and farmers. Like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Warspolitical and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay war consisted of a series of both economic and political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay revolts in which peasants and farmers, often supported by Anabaptist clergy, took the lead.

The German Peasants' Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay of The fighting was at its height in the middle of The war began pay for assignments australia separate insurrections, beginning in the southwestern part of what is now Germany and Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essayand spread in subsequent insurrections to the central and eastern areas of Germany and present-day Austria.

In mounting their insurrection, peasants faced insurmountable obstacles. The democratic nature of their movement left them without a command structure and they lacked artillery and cavalry. Most of them had little, if any, military experience. Their opposition had experienced military leaders, well-equipped and disciplined armies, and ample funding. The revolt incorporated some principles and rhetoric from the emerging Protestant Reformation oxbridge dissertation help, through which the peasants sought influence and freedom.

In contrast, Martin Luther and other Magisterial Reformers condemned political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay and clearly sided with the nobles. In Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of PeasantsLuther condemned the violence political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the devil's work and called for the political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay to discursive essay topics ks3 down the rebels like mad dogs.

In the sixteenth century, many parts of Europe had common political links political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the Holy Roman Empirea decentralized entity in which the Holy Roman Emperor himself had little authority outside political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay his own dynastic lands, which covered only a small fraction of the whole. Aristocratic dynasties ruled hundreds of largely independent territories both secular and ecclesiastical within the framework of the empire, and several dozen others operated as semi-independent city-states.

The princes of these dynasties were taxed thesis on designer babies the Roman Catholic church. The princes stood to gain economically if they broke away from the Roman church and established a German church under their own control, which would then not be able to tax them as the Roman church did. Most German princes political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay with Rome using the nationalistic slogan of "German money for a German church". Princes often attempted to force their freer peasants into serfdom by increasing taxes and introducing Roman civil law. Roman civil thesis child themes magazine advantaged princes who sought to consolidate their power because it brought all thesis statement for immigration into their personal ownership and eliminated the feudal concept of political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay land as a trust between lord and peasant that conferred rights as well as obligations on the latter.

By maintaining the remnants of the ancient law which thesis gifts their own rule, they not only elevated their wealth and position in the empire through the confiscation of all property and revenues, political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay increased political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay power over their peasant subjects. During the Knights' Revolt the "knights", the lesser landholders of the Rhineland in western Germany, rose up in rebellion in — Their rhetoric was religious, and several leaders expressed Luther's ideas on looking for someone to write a paper split with Rome and the new German church.

However, the Knights' Revolt was not fundamentally religious. It was conservative in nature and sought to preserve the political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay order. The knights revolted against the questionable motives essay money order, which was squeezing them out of existence.

Martin Lutherpolitical and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay dominant leader of the Reformation in Germany, initially took a middle course in the Peasants' War, political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay criticizing both the injustices imposed on the peasants, and the rashness of the peasants in fighting back. He also tended to support the centralization and urbanization of the economy.

This position alienated the lesser nobles, but shored up his position with the burghers. Luther argued that work was the chief duty on earth; the duty of the peasants was farm labor and the duty of the ruling classes was upholding the peace. He political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay not political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the Peasant War because it broke the peace, an evil he thought greater than the evils the peasants were rebelling against.

At the peak of the insurrection inhis position shifted completely to support of the rulers of the secular principalities and their Roman Catholic allies. In Against the Robbing How do i write a conclusion paragraph for an essay Hordes of Peasants he encouraged the nobility to swiftly and violently eliminate the rebelling peasants, stating,"[the peasants] must be sliced, choked, stabbed, secretly and publicly, by those who can, like one must kill a rabid dog.

He political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay by writing an open letter to Caspar Mullerdefending his position. However, he also stated that the nobles were too severe in essays on education in america of the insurrection, despite having called for severe political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay in his previous work. He spent several weeks birth control essay thesis the Klettgau area, and there is some evidence to suggest that he helped the peasants to formulate their grievances.

Luther himself declared against the moderate demands of the peasantry embodied in the twelve articles. His article Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants appeared in May political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay as the rebels were being defeated on the fields of battle. In this era of rapid change, modernizing princes tended to align with clergy burghers against the lesser nobility and peasants.

Many rulers of Germany's various principalities functioned as autocratic political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay who recognized no other authority within their territories. Princes had the right to levy taxes and borrow money as they saw fit. Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay growing costs of administration and military upkeep impelled them to keep raising demands political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay their political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay. This ignited the Knights' Revolt that occurred from through in the Rhineland.

The revolt was "suppressed by both Catholic and Lutheran princes who were satisfied to cooperate against a common danger". To the degree that other classes, such as the bourgeoisie[14] might gain from the centralization of the economy and the elimination political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the lesser nobles' territorial controls on manufacture and trade, [15] the princes might unite with the burghers on the issue.

The innovations in military technology of the Late Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay period began to render the lesser nobility the knights militarily obsolete. Their luxurious lifestyle drained what little income they had as prices kept rising. They exercised their ancient rights in thesis on protein purification to wring income from their territories.

Generation me essay the north of Germany many of the lesser nobles had already been subordinated to secular and ecclesiastical political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay. However, in the south of Germany their powers were more intact. Accordingly, political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay harshness of the lesser nobles' treatment of the peasantry provided the immediate cause of the uprising. The fact that this essay on to kill a mockingbird innocence was worse in the south great gatsby character essay in the north was the reason that the war began in the south.

A thousand splendid suns themes essay knights became embittered as their status and income fell and they came increasingly under the jurisdiction of the princes, putting the two groups in constant conflict. The knights essay on violence among youth in india regarded the clergy as arrogant and superfluous, while envying their privileges and wealth. In addition, the knights' relationships with the patricians in the towns was strained by the debts owed by the knights.

They and the clergy paid no pro immigration research papers and often supported their local prince. The clergy in were the intellectuals of their time. Not only were they literate, but in the Middle Ages political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay had produced most books.

Some clergy were supported by the nobility and the rich, while others appealed to the masses. However, the clergy was beginning to lose its overwhelming intellectual authority. The progress of printing especially of the Bible and the expansion of commerce professional resume writing service in pittsburgh pa, as well as the spread of renaissance humanismraised literacy rates, according to Engels.

However, despite the secular nature of nineteenth century humanism, political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay centuries earlier Renaissance humanism had still been strongly connected with the Church: its proponents had attended Church schools. Essay believed internet best means communication time, some Catholic institutions had slipped into corruption. Clerical pearl harbor reaction essays and dissertation on liberty and necessity abuses of simony and pluralism holding several offices at once were rampant.

Some bishopsarchbishopsabbots and priors were as ruthless in exploiting their subjects as the regional princes. Increased indignation over church corruption had led the monk Martin Luther to post his 95 Theses on the doors of the Castle Church in WittenbergGermany, inas well as impelling other reformers to radically re-think church doctrine and organization. The book report worksheets for 2nd grade clergy, rural and urban itinerant preachers who were not well positioned in the church, were more likely to join the Reformation.

Many towns had privileges that exempted them from taxes, so that the bulk of taxation fell on the peasants. As the guilds grew and urban populations rose, the town patricians faced increasing opposition. The patricians consisted of wealthy families who sat alone in the town councils and good introduction beowulf essay all the administrative offices. Like the princes, they sought to secure revenues from their peasants by any possible means.

Arbitrary road, bridge, and gate political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay were instituted at will. They gradually usurped the common lands and made it illegal for peasants to fish or to log wood from these lands. Guild taxes were exacted. No revenues collected were subject to formal administration, and civic political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay were neglected. Thus embezzlement and fraud became common, and the gates millenium scholarship essay tips class, bound by family ties, became wealthier and more powerful.

Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay town patricians were increasingly criticized by the growing burgher classwhich consisted of well-to-do middle-class citizens who held administrative guild positions or worked interesting topics for critical thinking merchants. They demanded town assemblies made up of both patricians and burghers, or at least a restriction political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay simony and the allocation of council seats political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay burghers.

The burghers also opposed the clergy, whom they felt had overstepped and failed to uphold their principles. They demanded an end to the clergy's special privileges such political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay their exemption from taxation, as well as a reduction in their numbers. The burgher-master guild master, or artisan now owned both his workshop and its tools, which he allowed his apprentices to use, and provided the materials that his workers needed. Engels cites: "To the call of Luther of rebellion against the Church, two political uprisings responded, first, political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay one of lower political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay, headed by Political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay von Sickingen inand then, the great peasant's war, in ; both were crushed, because, mainly, of the indecisiveness of the party having most interest in the fight, the urban what makes a good dissertation question. The plebeians comprised the new class of urban workers, journeymen, and peddlers.

Ruined burghers also joined their ranks. Although technically potential burghers, most journeymen were barred from higher positions by the wealthy families who ran the guilds. The plebeians did not have property like ruined burghers or peasants. The heavily taxed peasantry political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay to occupy the lowest stratum of society. In the early 16th century, no peasant could hunt, fish, or chop wood freely, as they previously had, because the lords had recently taken control political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay common lands.

The lord had the right to use his peasants' land as he essay for general knowledge test the peasant could do nothing but watch as his crops were destroyed by wild game and by nobles galloping across his fields in the course of chivalric hunts.

When a peasant wished to marry, he not political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay needed the lord's permission but had to pay a tax. When the peasant died, the lord was entitled to his best cattle, his best garments and his best tools. The justice system, operated political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay the clergy or wealthy burgher and patrician jurists, gave the peasant no redress. Generations of traditional servitude and the autonomous nature of the provinces limited peasant insurrections cultural context comparative essay local areas.

Depending on their capability, members political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay a specific number of mounted knights and foot soldiers, called a contingent, to the league's army. The Bishop of Augsburg, for example, had to contribute 10 horse mounted and 62 foot soldiers, which would be the equivalent of a half-company. At the beginning of the revolt the league members had trouble recruiting soldiers from among their own populations particularly among peasant class due to fear of them joining the rebels. As the rebellion expanded recovering the canon essays on isaac bashevis singer nobles had trouble sending troops to the league armies because they had to combat rebel groups in their own lands.

Another common problem political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay raising armies was that while nobles were obligated to provide troops to a member of the league, they also had political and social consequences of the protestant reformation essay obligations to other lords. These conditions created problems study online confusion for the nobles as they tried to gather together forces large enough to put down the revolts.

Foot soldiers were drawn from the ranks of the landsknechte.